Các cấu trúc cần ghi nhớ
1. CHỈ CÁCH THỨC: thường bắt đầu bằng as, as if, as though
He could not come as he promised
- As if / As though: dùng diễn tả điều kiện không có thật ở hiện tại hoặc ở quá khứ
* Hiện tại: S + V + as if / as though + S + V (QKĐ)
* Quá khứ: S + V + as if / as though + S + V (QKHT)
She dresses as if she were an actress.
He talked about New York as though he had been there before.
2. HAD BETTER / HAD BETTER NOT + V1: nên, tốt hơn nên
You had better take your umbrella with you today.
You had better not go out in the rain.
3. WOULD RATHER
S + would rather (+ not) + V1 + (than) … thích hơn
S + would rather + (that) + S + V (QKĐ / QKHT) …
I would rather stay at home.
I would rather stay at home than go to the movie.
I would rather you went home now.
- would prefer + to-inf
- would rather …than = would prefer …rather than
I’d rather stay at home tonight than go to the cinema.
He would prefer to drive rather than take the bus.
4. Modal Verbs + be + V-ing: dự đoán sự việc có thể đang xảy ra
It’s 9 a.m. He must be working.
5. Modal Verbs + have + V3/-ed: dự đoán sự việc không xảy ra trong quá khứ
Peter failed the exam again. He must have been very sad.
6. Thể bị động:
- Có hai tân ngữ
My mother gave me some money.
I was given some money by my mother.
Some money was given to me by my mother.
Khi đem túc từ chỉ vật làm chủ từ trong câu bị động có hai túc từ cần chú ý thêm các từ: to, for. Những từ đi với to: send, write, give. Đi với for: buy
- Động từ chỉ giác quan: see, look, hear, notice, taste …
Active: S + V + O + V1 / V-ing
Passive: S + be + V3/-ed + to-inf / V-ing.
- Từ chỉ cảm xúc: like, love, hate, wish, prefer, hope …
Active: S + V + O + to-inf
Passive: S + V + O + to be + V3/-ed
She wanted her mother to give her some money.
-> She wanted some money to be given.
7. to-inf / V-ing / V1
- help + O + to-inf / V1
- had better, would rather, had sooner, why not + V1
Why not stay for lunch?
- advise, recommend, allow, permit, encourage, require + V-ing
- advise, recommend, allow, permit, encourage, require + O + to-inf
They don’t permit us to smoke here.
They don’t permit smoking here.
- what, when, where, how …+ to-inf.
- after, before, since, when, while + V-ing
8. SO SÁNH
- Với danh từ: more + noun + than
- much, far, a lot, a little: được đặt trước so sánh hơn để nhấn mạnh
I have more books than Peter does.
She is much more intelligent than I think.
- Khi nói gấp bao nhiêu lần, ta dùng twice as …as, three times as …as
Their house is about three times as big as ours.
9. RÚT NGẮN MỆNH ĐỀ
- Hai hành động có cùng chủ từ xảy ra cùng lúc à hành động sau được diễn đạt bằng cụm hiện tại phân từ (V-ing)
He walked along. He whistled a happy tune.
-> He walked along whistling a happy tune.
- Hai hành động có cùng chủ từ xảy ra liên tiếp nhau à hành động xảy ra trước được diễn đạt bằng cụm hiện tại phân từ (V-ing) hoặc phân từ hoàn thành (Having + V3/-ed)
She opened the bottle and then poured milk into his glass.
-> Opening the bottle, she poured milk into his glass.
He had finished all work; he went out for a while.
-> Having finished all work, he went out for a while.
- Dùng quá khứ phân từ cho mệnh đề bị động
He lived alone. He had been forgotten by everybody.
-> He lived alone, forgotten by everybody.
He was waken by a strange noise. He couldn’t sleep any more.
-> Waken by a strange noise, he couldn’t sleep any more.
10. It’s time / It’s high time
- It’s time / It’s high time + (for + O) + to-inf
- It’s time / It’s high time + S + V (QKĐ)
It’s high time you got a job.
It’s time to buy a new car.