Cách phát âm -ed

How to Pronounce -ed in English

The past simple tense and past participle of all regular verbs end in -ed. For example:

base verb



past simple



past participle



In addition, many adjectives are made from the past participle and so end in -ed. For example:

    • I like painted furniture.

The question is: How do we pronounce the -ed?

The answer is: In 3 ways - / Id/ or / t/ or / d/

* note that it is the sound that is important, not the letter or spelling. For example, "fax" ends in the letter "x" but the sound /s/; "like" ends in the letter "e" but the sound /k/.


The following -ed words used as adjectives are pronounced with /Id/:

    • aged

    • blessed

    • crooked

    • dogged

    • learned

    • naked

    • ragged

    • wicked

    • wretched

So we say:

    • an aged man /Id/

    • a blessed nuisance /Id/

    • a dogged persistence /Id/

    • a learned professor - the professor, who was truly learned /Id/

    • a wretched beggar - the beggar was wretched /Id/

But when used as real verbs (past simple and past participle), the normal rules apply and we say:

    • he aged quickly /d/

    • he blessed me /t/

    • they dogged him /d/

    • he has learned well /d/ or /t/